10 Steps to Naturalization: Understanding the Process of Becoming a U.S. Citizen

To apply for naturalization, you will need to file Form N-400, Application for Naturalization. Below you will find a general description of the application process.

Before you apply, be sure that you meet all eligibility requirements. Check if you qualify for any exceptions and accommodations. You can use the naturalization eligibility worksheet (PDF, 301 KB) and document checklist (PDF, 178 KB) to help you prepare.

Study for the Test 

During your naturalization interview, a USCIS Officer will ask you questions about your application and background. You will also take an English and civics test unless you qualify for an exemption or waiver. The English test has three components: reading, writing, and speaking. The civics test covers important U.S. history and government topics. See below to learn more about the test and the free study tools available to help you prepare.

Study Materials for the English Test

Study Materials for the Civics Test

Speaking Test

Your ability to speak English will be determined by a USCIS Officer during your eligibility interview on Form N-400, Application for Naturalization.

Reading Test

You must read aloud one out of three sentences correctly to demonstrate an ability to read in English. The Reading Test Vocabulary List (PDF, 165 KB) will help you study for the English reading portion of the naturalization test. The content focuses on civics and history topics.

Writing Test

You must write one out of three sentences correctly to demonstrate an ability to write in English. The Writing Test Vocabulary List (PDF, 161 KB) will help you study for the English writing portion of the naturalization test. The content focuses on civics and history topics.

Civics Test

There are 100 civics questions on the naturalization test (PDF, 353 KB). During your naturalization interview, you will be asked up to 10 questions from the list of 100 questions. You must answer correctly six (6) of the 10 questions to pass the civics test.

You have two opportunities to take the English and civics tests per application. If you fail any portion of the test during your first interview, you will be retested on the portion of the test that you failed between 60 and 90 days from the date of your initial interview.
https://www.uscis.gov/citizenship/learners/apply-citizenship

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